September 2018
Prevention of myopia progression

Myopia has become one of the most common diseases, especially in the industrial world. Lifestyle and behaviour are crucial for the pathogenesis of this refractive disease: nowadays people practice less outdoor activities and more near work. Spectacles, contact lenses and ortokerathology seem less effective than atropine ophthalmic drops in preventing its progression. In particular, low-dose... read more
September 2018
Efficacy of a gel formulation based on trehalose/sodium hyaluronate/carbomer and no eye patching vs application of ophthalmic antibiotic ointment plus eye patching in the treatment of corneal epithelial damage caused by mechanical injury

Introduction: The ocular surface is a complex functional unit whose normal functions are regulated by the nervous system, particularly expressed at the corneal level. Various diseases, and also traumatic injuries, can lead to the alteration of the ocular surface. In case of trauma, the main purpose of ocular surface therapy is to repair the epithelial... read more
September 2018
Dry eye disease: an unstable tear film and the need of a complete treatment

From 6 to 20 % of adults over 40 years have some symptoms referred to a kind of tear dysfunction a condition which is linked to a series of persistent symptoms, The origin of this disease is multifactorial and linked to pathological conditions of one of the portions of the Eye Surface System, which includes... read more
June 2018
The Conventional Outflow Pathway: How The Trabecular Meshwork And Schlemm’s Canal Work And Related Alterations Under Oxidative Stress Conditions

Primary open-angle glaucoma is a multifactorial disease that affects the retinal ganglion cells (RGC); however, the lowering of intraocular pressure currently is the only recognized therapy. This is indicative of a specific involvement of the trabecular meshwork (TM) and of Schlemm’s canal (SC), a key region in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. In fact, TM is... read more
June 2018
Efficacy And Tolerability Of Preservative-Free 0.1% Timolol Gel In Patients With Signs And Symptoms Of Local Intolerance To Prostaglandin Monotherapy

Objectives: Assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of Timolol Maleate ophthalmic gel (Timogel® 1 mg/g UID) in patients with ocular hypertension and/or primary open-angle glaucoma, selected because of local side effects reported during treatment with Tafluprost (Saflutan® 15 mcg/ml UID). Materials and methods: 40 patients treated with Tafluprost for at least 6 months with good... read more
June 2018
Dry Eye Management. The Point Of View Of Italian Ophthalmologists

Purpose: to evaluate the methods used by Italian ophthalmologists to diagnose and treat dry eye syndrome, and to learn the tools used to record the symptoms and quality of life of affected patients. Methods: a questionnaire concerning the management of dry eye syndrome and in particular the risk factors, the symptoms, the quality of life... read more
March 2018
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of 1% carboxymethylcellulose in gel after cataract surgery in patients with moderate to severe dry-eye

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of 1% carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) use in gel form (Optive Gel®) for ocular discomfort after cataract surgery in patients with moderate to severe preoperative dry-eye. Design: prospective, comparative study. Methods: 40 eyes of 29 patients operated on at the Florence Diagnostic and Surgical Eye-Center were included in the study. All cases... read more
March 2018
Clinical evaluation of a novel device for anterior chamber angle photography

Purpose: To assess Automatic Gonio- Photography (AGP) – true color images of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) – for identifying angle anatomical structures and pathological or post-surgical findings. Methods: GS-1 (Gonioscope GS-1; NIDEK Technologies Srl) was used to acquire 360-degree images of the ACA on both eyes of 50 patients. Apparent iris insertion for each... read more
March 2018
Angle closure glaucoma: one disease, many diseases

Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is characterized by a mechanical obstruction of the trabecular meshwork by the peripheral iris. Our understanding of the disease has been considerably improved in the last two decades as its harmfulness has been better recognized worldwide. A key recognition is that the majority of patients suffering severe loss of vision... read more
December 2017
Timing of recurrence of pterygia using post-operative injection of subconjunctival 5-fluoracil and corticosteroid

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy, safety and timing of recurrence of pterygia treated with subconjunctival injections of either 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) or Dexamethasone post-operatively. Methods: 44 patients with primary or secondary pterygium underwent conjunctival autografting for pterygium removal. They were treated 1 month post-operatively with 3 subconjunctival injections of 5-FU (19 patients) or Dexamethasone (25 patients).... read more
December 2017
Reproducibility and repeatability of Pentacam in keratoconus and control eyes

Purpose: To assess reproducibility and repeatability of Pentacam topography. Methods: 15 patients with keratoconus and 15 age-matched controls underwent 3 consecutive scans in one session. 13 topometric and 7 keratoconus indices were considered in the analysis. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), repeatability by means of percentage coefficient of variation (COV) or standard... read more
December 2017
Evaluation of sub-basal nerve plexus in diabetes: a review

Diabetic complications are due to microvascular and neuropathic changes induced by chronic hyperglycemia. In order to reduce their severity and social impact, it is mandatory to early diagnose and adequately treat and monitor diabetic neuropathy (DN) and diabetic angiopathy (DA). Fundus oculi examination and retinal angiography are established markers for DA, whereas a validated and... read more
September 2017
Moorfield regression analysis versus retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients

Purpose: To evaluate the agreement between Moorfield Regression Analysis (MRA) and peripapillary retinal nerve fibers layer thickness. Methods: 54 eyes with normal VF and 18 with early VF damage were classified as ocular hypertension or early primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and were included in the study: All the subjects performed achromatic 30° visual field... read more
September 2017
Ocular movements in patients with dyslexia

Purpose: to evaluate the association between dyslexia and eye movement. Methods: The sample was composed of 11 children with dyslexia and 11 healthy subjects between the ages of 8-13 years. All partecipants underwent orthoptic evaluation, ophthalmological examinations, eye movement analysis, stability analysis on fixating a still target, tracking saccades, analysis of fixation pauses, speed reading... read more
September 2017
Workload and cost assessment of medical resources for wet amd care in Northern Italy

Purpose: To calculate healthcare professionals’ workload and costs for wet AMD (aged macular degeneration) treatment in an Italian NHS (National Health System) hospital. Methods: Wet AMD is managed by a nested staff subgroup within the Ophthalmic Hospital in Milan, Italy. The 2015 activity data for wet AMD were retrospectively analysed. We retrieved data on the... read more
June 2017
Peripheral corneal cross-linking (P-CXL) as a treatment for an ultrathin cornea with stage IV keratoconus A new technique

Corneal Cross-linking (CXL) is aimed at halting the progression of keratoconus and is widely considered to be the golden standard technique in the treatment of this disease. It is usually contraindicated, however, in patients with less than 400 μm of corneal thickness, leaving the ophthalmic surgeon with the option of performing Transepithelial CXL, usually regarded... read more
June 2017
Relationship between corneal pachymetry and perimeter damage evaluated with glaucoma staging system

Scope: to evaluate the association between corneal pachymetry and visual field progression in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Basic procedures: retrospective, comparative case series. The Glaucoma Staging System (GSS) and pachymetric data from the right eyes of 168 patients with POAG and medically controlled intraocular pressure (IOP < 20 mmHg) were retrospectively analyzed. Exclusion... read more
June 2017
Minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of glaucoma: current status and future developments

Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery has been enriched in recent years with several new techniques and devices. It is a valid alternative to conventional filtration surgery. This review briefly summarises the various minimally invasive techniques that are available to date. Glaucoma is a chronically evolving neuro-ophthalmic disease that is the primary cause of legally acknowledged irreversible... read more
March 2017
The likelihood of going blind in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients

Studies estimate that between 5.2 and 6.7 million people all around the world are blind due to glaucoma. The rate of blindness is probably higher in developing countries, where glaucoma remains undiagnosed in the majority of cases. To date, intraocular pressure is the only factor that can be modified to regulate the disease, however there... read more
March 2017
Current evidences about the role of Cytidine 5’-Diphosphocholine (citicoline) in glaucoma

Cytidine diphosphocholine is a mononucleotide produced endogenously from choline as an intermediate step in the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids. It’s been widely used in several neurological diseases and glaucoma. Several experimental studies using different model of retinal ganglion cells death and toxicity have confirmed the neuroprotective role of this molecule in glaucoma and this... read more
March 2017
Local anaesthesia in oculoplastic surgery: a comparative study of two different techniques

Purpose: To compare efficacy, reliability, satisfaction and safety of a new loco-regional anaesthesia technique Vs the usual technique of local anaesthesia alone for eyelid surgery. Methods: Two different randomly patient groups were studied. A special personality score was used in the inclusion criteria to test patient collaboration. The Group 1 included 20 patients affected by... read more
December 2016
Importance of the galenic formulation for ophthalmic steroid-antibiotic fixed combinations

Objective: assess the effect of the type of formulation in six ophthalmic drug products (Betabioptal® suspension, Betabioptal® gel, Betabioptal® solution, Tobradex® suspension and Cloradex® suspension) containing a combination corticosteroid / antibiotic (eye drops in homogeneous solution, in suspension or eye gel) on the active ingredient concentration in the single instillation. Methods: a standardized protocol of... read more
December 2016
Corneal sensitivity and artificial substitutes in primary open angle glaucoma patients

Purpose: To assess corneal subepithelial nerve plexus and corneal sensitivity before and after a tear substitute in glaucomatous patients. Methods: This study was prospective, longitudinal, and single-arm. Twenty glaucomatous patients treated with a prostaglandin analogue with preservative for at least one year were recruited in this study. Preservative-free artificial tears (0.5% TS-Polysaccharide 0.5® eye drops... read more
December 2016
Spray Containing Vitamins A And E In A Liposomal Solution: Observational Study On Children

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of a spray ophthalmic solution containing vitamin A, vitamin E and liposomes to reduce the signs and the symptoms of dyslachrymia in pediatric patients. Method: From April 2014 to February 2015, 60 children were enrolled in the study aged between 3... read more
September 2016
MMC 0.04 % eye drops complications after ocular surface squamous neoplasia excision

Aim: To show potential topical MMC 0.04% side effects when used to prevent ocular surface squamous neoplasia recurrence. Methods: A farmer, already operated 3 months before, was sent from another hospital to our Cornea Centre for recurrent pterygium. The clinical aspect is showed at slit lamp in figure 1. The following day underwent surgery by... read more
September 2016
Visual acuity rehabilitation in paralytic lagophthalmus following lid surgery using autologus serum eye-drop. Paralytic lagophthalmus using serum eye-drop

The aim of our observational study was to evaluate the visual improvement after surgical rehabilitation using single-dose autologous serum eye drops (ASE), instead of artificial tears (AT) in eyes with paralytic lagophthalmus. Our goal was to ameliorate the serious disorders of the ocular surface appearing after the damage of the 7th cranial nerve, specifically the... read more
September 2016
Pre-and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis: what do the guidelines say? Focus on antibiotic/ corticosteroid combinations and medico-legal risk

The medico-legal aspects of antibiotic prophylaxis and the concept of “evidence-based care” should be carefully balanced with the correct use of antibiotics in view of the increasing incidence of resistant strains. The injection of intra-cameral cefuroxime at the end of surgery appears to be inevitable. Its absence is a proven risk factor for endophthalmitis after... read more
June 2016
Short – term efficacy of two lipidic eyedrops in the treatment of evaporative dry eye

Aim: to compare the short-term effects of two commercially available lipidic tear substitutes (Lacrisek ofta mono, containing liposomes, and Artelac Rebalance, containing polyethyleneglycol and hyaluronic acid) on patients affected by moderate evaporative dry eye. Methods: Fifteen patients with moderate dry eye were evaluated on two consecutive days, in clinically standard conditions, in order to test... read more
June 2016
An alternative to fluorescein for measuring intraocular pressure by means of the goldmann tonometer

Objective: The recent European Union regulation about drugs and medical devices, stating that any chemical product used for diagnostic purposes, such as intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by applanation tonometry, has to be registered as a drug, created several difficulties to ophthalmologists, opticians fitting contact lenses and optometrists. Furthermore, the medical device fluorescein in paper strips... read more
June 2016
Neuropsychiatric findings in non-sjögren’s syndrome dry eye patients

Objective: To compare the pre- and post-treatment severity of depression, anxiety and fatigue symptoms in non- Sjögren’s sicca patients and evaluate the correlation with the initial dry eye signs and symptoms. Methods: 54 patients with non- Sjögren’s dry eye disease were included in the study. All patients completed an interviewer-assisted questionnaire on dry eye symptoms... read more